Resistance Monitoring Resources

In previous Resistance Resource Center communications, we’ve provided information on insecticide resistance and spotlighted organizations that currently have an insecticide resistance management program. In this expansion of the Resistance Resource Center, we provide resistance monitoring resources available to mosquito control programs.

Insecticide resistance is a nuanced and ever-evolving topic within mosquito control. Here at ADAPCO, we understand the importance of insecticide resistance monitoring and want every vector control district to have the resources to conduct their own assays or the ability to submit samples for testing. Below you will find a variety of resources on a state, regional, and national level for insecticide resistance monitoring:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has several resources available to vector control programs interested in insecticide resistance monitoring. On their website you will find general information about insecticide resistance, how resistance is measured, and a manual on how to conduct the CDC Bottle Bioassay, a laboratory assay that tests for phenotypic (expressed) resistance of mosquito populations. The CDC also offers FREE CDC Bottle Bioassay testing kits for programs interested in conducting their own assays. To obtain a kit, simply email USBottleAssayKit@cdc.gov and request an order form. The kits will include bottles, technical grade insecticide, and a manual.

World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO) website contains the second edition of Test procedures for insecticide resistance monitoring in malaria vector mosquitoes. This document outlines a framework for conducting insecticide resistance monitoring and instructions on how to conduct the WHO assay, a phenotypic resistance assay. Kits to conduct the WHO assay can be obtained through Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM). In addition, WHO has protocols for conducting larvicide resistance monitoring assays and the supplies for these assays can also be purchased from USM.

Pacific Southwest Center of Excellence of Vector-Borne Diseases

The Pacific Southwest Center of Excellence of Vector-Borne Diseases (PacVec) provides a number of resources for mosquito and vector control for training and conducting insecticide resistance monitoring. Under the resources tab on their website, you can quickly access training videos for larval mosquito resistance testing and downloadable supplemental materials. Dr. Anton Cornel’s laboratory also leads the adult resistance bioassays and regional training workshops to learn how to use the CDC’s Bottle Bioassays. If interested in submitting samples (Culex or Aedes only) for testing, contact bioassays@pacvec.us to arrange shipment and timing for testing. Additional information on the offerings from PacVec can be found here.

Northeast Regional Center for Excellence in Vector-Borne Diseases

The Northeast Regional Center for Excellence in Vector-Borne Diseases (NEVBD) offers two different ways to involve vector control districts in insecticide resistance monitoring. The first is by offering testing for those that want to submit mosquitoes. On their website, you can find resources on how to collect, rear, and submit samples for testing. If you are interested in testing on your own mosquitoes, NEVBD provides Adult and Larval Testing Kits, which can be requested using the adult kit and larval kit forms. If interested in insecticide resistance monitoring partnered with NEVBD, contact pesticide@cornell.edu with any questions.

Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory

Dr. Eva Buckner at the Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory (FMEL) currently has grant funding to conduct insecticide resistance monitoring for Florida mosquito control programs. Dr. Buckner utilizes the CDC Bottle Bioassay and testing is available for Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Florida mosquito control programs can request information on having their mosquitoes tested by emailing Dr. Buckner at eva.buckner@ufl.edu.

Insecticide Resistance Action Committee

The Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) has several informational resources available on insecticide resistance. The IRAC mode of action (MOA) classification online browser allows you to view the various pesticide MOAs, the molecular structure of the pesticides, and examples of active ingredients that fall in each category. You can also download the IRAC MOA poster. There is also a section on the Public Health Team, which includes specific resistance information to the public health industry.

United States Department of Agriculture Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology (USDA CMAVE)

Al Estep at the United States Department of Agriculture Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology (USDA CMAVE) is currently focusing on the toxicological resistance of various mosquito populations. His laboratory in Gainesville, Florida is conducting enzymatic and genetic resistance assays. Al’s lab is willing to collaborate with any interested mosquito control programs and interested groups can contact him at alden.estep@usda.gov.

Florida Mosquito Control Association (FMCA)

The Florida Mosquito Control Association (FMCA) hosts a variety of training courses at their annual Dodd Training Courses. Among these courses is a training course on how to conduct the CDC Bottle Bioassay. This course is usually taught by Dr. Janet McAllister from the CDC who is one of the creators of the assay. The upcoming Dodd Training Courses will be held January 31st – February 3, 2022, in Gainesville, Florida.

Louisiana Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory (LADDL)

Louisiana Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory (LADDL) has a current contract with the Louisiana Department of Health and the CDC to provide Insecticide Resistance Monitoring for mosquito abatement districts throughout Louisiana. Currently, they perform the CDC Bottle Bioassay and test for malathion, deltamethrin, sumithrin, permethrin, and resmethrin. Although not supported by the contract with LDH and CDC, Dr. Alma Roy will accept submissions from outside of the state of Louisiana for a nominal fee. To utilize the services offered by LADDL, mosquito abatement districts must use the specifications listed here. If interested in LADDL’s services, you may reach out directly to Dr. Alma Roy at aroy@lsu.edu or Dr. Keith Strother at kstrother@lsu.edu.

Mosquito Academy

The New Orleans Mosquito, Termite, & Rodent Control Board (NOMTRCB) and Louisiana Mosquito Control Association (LMCA) put together an event called Mosquito Academy on an annual basis. This learning opportunity brings in industry professionals, such as Janet McAllister, to discuss Insecticide Resistance Monitoring and often demonstrate how to effectively do bottle bioassays. If you are interested in learning about bottle bioassays at the mosquito academy, contact education@nola.gov.

University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Dr. Christopher Vitek at the University of Texas Rio Grande Valley has been conducting insecticide resistance monitoring with grant funding from the Texas Department of State and Health Services. His lab is utilizing the CDC Bottle Bioassay to test local populations of mosquitoes in Texas. If you are a Texas vector control program and are interested in insecticide resistance testing, contact Dr. Vitek at christopher.vitek@UTRGV.edu.

ADAPCO

ADAPCO is currently working on a curated video (that will be available soon on the ADAPCO Vector Lab) that will walk you through how to effectively run a caged field trial. This resource will take you through every step of the process including collecting mosquitoes, lab rearing of mosquitoes, building field trial cages, how to set up sampling stations, field trial preparation, and how to conduct the trial. This informative video will direct you from A to Z to test your field populations efficiently and effectively for insecticide resistance with existing and new products. Be on the lookout for this videos release in Winter 2021!

In addition to producing the adulticide field trial video, ADAPCO regularly conducts field trials with mosquito control programs to assess product efficacy in local mosquito populations. Assessing the efficacy of products in a field environment is key to insecticide resistance management. Contact your local ADAPCO representative if interested in these field trials.

If you are having difficulty finding a resource for testing or training, reach out to us and we can put you in contact with someone that can help. Additionally, as you explore these resources, remember that the clearest picture of insecticide resistance and how to combat it will come from testing often and using different monitoring tools. Therefore, you should engage in as many resistance monitoring techniques as you can on a regular basis. As always, early detection and monitoring of your mosquito populations will protect the existing active ingredients within our market and allow vector control agencies to continue to protect and preserve public health.

If you have any additional training opportunities or resources that you would like to be featured above, please send them to tds@myadapco.com.

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